Common Ailments of the Circulatory System
Some diseases of the circulatory system are the primary causes of deaths in the Philippines today. What are these Illnesses?
Rheumatic Fever – Rheumatic Heart Disease (RF-RHD)
Rheumatic Fever – Rheumatic Heart diseases usually occurs in children. This may start from an inflammation of the throat caused by a germ called streptococcus. The inflammation is called strepthroat. If not cured, strepthroat may develop into rheumatic fever. This fever lasts for weeks.
Its symptoms are swelling of the knees, ankles, wrists and elbows. Abdominal pains, nosebleeds, chest pains and difficulty in breathing also accompany the fever.
If the fever continues, rheumatic heart disease results. This means that valves in the heart are already affected. A child with rheumatic heart disease has difficulty in breathing and easily gets tired.
Congenital Heart Disease (CHD)
There are babies born with defective heart. A newborn baby with a defective heart is called a blue baby. A blue baby is called such because when it cries, the surrounds of the mouth and the fingertips turn bluish. This is a sign that the baby has a congenital heart disease. Congenital means that the disease developed before the baby was born.
If an expectant mother gets sick of German measles during the first three months of pregnancy, the baby may develop some abnormalities. One example is congenital heart disease.
A child with a congenital heart disease easily catches respiratory diseases and has a slow rate of growth.
High Blood Pressure
High Blood pressure called hypertension occurs among adults. Too much force exerted by the blood on the arteries causes it. This disease is often called silent killer because it can cause sudden death even if the person looks healthy.
The symptoms of high blood pressure are frequent headaches, dizziness, ringing in the ears, and palpitation. If not controlled, this disease may lead to the enlargement of the heart, a stroke or a heart attach.
Among the causes of hypertension are too much fat and salt in the diet, obesity, and lack of exercise, smoking and drinking of alcoholic beverages. Stress and tension also contribute to the development of this disease.
Coronary Artery Diseases – is the thickening of the artery caused by the accumulation of fatty deposits along the inner lining of the arteries. These fatty deposits are called cholesterol. Blood cannot flow freely when there is much cholesterol in the arteries.
An artery may have a blood clot. This blood clot prevents blood from reaching some of the heart muscles. When the muscles do not get food and oxygen, they become injured, if the injury affects a bigger area, the heart may not be able to pump blood. When this happens, a heart attack occurs.
Anemia – is a disorder of the blood in which the red blood cells are affected. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to body cells to provide energy. The level of the blood cells may be reduced from the normal level. This results in a lack of oxygen in the tissues causing anemia. The symptoms of anemia are fainting, lack of energy and paleness.
Hemophilia – is a disease of the blood, which is inherited. A person with hemophilia is called a bleeder because when he or she bleeds, the blood does not clot or it clots very slowly resulting in the loss of much blood. In this case, the person needs blood transfusion.
Heart Attack – when one of the arteries in the heart stops suddenly, a heart attack occurs. This is an emergency situation, which endangers the life of the patient. A person who has a heart attack suffers from intense pain. He feels that his chest is being squeezed and he has difficulty in breathing. He becomes weak and may vomit. He perspires and looks pale.
When a heart attack occurs, call for a doctor or an ambulance. Place the patient in a half-reclining position with his head and shoulders elevated slightly until a doctor sees him. The victim should remain at rest. Loose his clothing and let him breathe fresh air. Bring the patient immediately to an intensive care unit or heart station in a hospital.
Health Habits to keep the Heart, Blood and Blood Vessel – Healthy
Each part of your circulatory system does an important work. Any ailment that affects these parts will affect the work of the circulatory system.
You are still young. Some of the ailments of this system may not yet affect you but perhaps they may, when you become older. Therefore at your age, you should already keep yourself healthy so you can prevent illness. How can you be healthy? Here are some rules to keep in mind.
Have a balanced diet each meal a balanced diet gives you the correct food in proper amount as.
Watch your weight to prevent obesity. Obesity overworks the heart.
Exercise regularly. You need active exercise to make your bone and muscles firm and strong.
Have time to rest to keep your heart from breaking down from fatigue.
Always think positively. Avoid worrying too much.
Do not smoke or drink liquor.
Stay away from prohibited drugs or you might get hooked.
Get fresh air-every day. The fresh air that you breathe gives quick help to the muscles of your heart.
Stand and sit with good posture so that your lungs and heart have room to work properly.
Visit the doctor once a year for a health examination.
Ways of Caring for the Circulatory System
The circulatory system has a very important function of carrying blood around the body all the time. If any part
Reduce or Avoid Fatty System
Your body produces the right amount of cholesterol to maintain your health. Cholesterol is a fatty or oily substance that normally forms part of your cell wall. However if the cholesterol level of your body gets high it stays in the walls of the arteries. It contributes to the condition called arteriosclerosis or hardening of the arteries causing heart attacks and strokes. Fatty diets especially animal fats increase the cholesterol level. It is better to replace the fats with cholesterol level. It is better to replace the fats with carbohydrates such as bread, potatoes and rice. Eat less meat and more fish and poultry. Bad fats are found in beef, pork, lamb, processed meats such as hotdogs and coconut oil, whole milk, butter, lard and cream. Fruits, vegetables and juices are good for the body.
What is nervous system?
The nervous system has three main parts the brain, the spinal cord and all the nerves that connect them to the other parts of the body. It is a network of billions of nervous cells all over the body. These nerves cells are connected to the brain through the spinal cord.
It regulates the functions of the other systems. It controls the beating of your heart, the movement of your legs & arms, and hands whether you are at work or at play or just resting. It receives information from the environment and causes specific parts of the body to act that information.
The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells. The surface of the brain has many folds and wrinkles. This surface is often called gray matter because of its color. Inside the brain is a white substance.
The Spinal Cord
The Spinal cord is a long slender nerve that is connected to the medulla and goes down to the spinal column or break bone that protects it. Like the brain, the spinal cord has a protective covering and is surrounded by a fluid.
The Nerve Cells
The nerve cell or neuron is the basic unit of structure in the nervous system. Nerve cells form a network to receive and send messages.
Neuron – (bundle of nerve cells)
basic units of structure and function in the nervous system
carry messages throughout the body.
What makes up the Nervous?
1.Dendrites – carry messages to the nerve cells.
2.Axons – carry messages away from the cell body.
Types of Neurons
1.Sensory Nervous – carry messages from special receptor to the central nervous system. Receptors are part of the NS that respond to stimuli.
2.Motor Neurons – carry messages from the central NS to the effectors. Effectors are parts of the body that carry out the instructions of the NS.
3.Inter neurons – connect sensory and motor neurons.
Nerve Impulses – are messages carried throughout your body by nerves?
Enter the cell body of neuron through the dendrites.
Travel through an axon at speed as high as 120 m/sec.
Synapse – a tiny gap between the axon and the dendrite.
Spinal Nerve – carry impulse from sense receptor like the eye or the skin to the central nervous system.
Autonomic nerves – enables use to feel and be aware of pain, anger, and fear.
Nervous System – communication system
Contusion – when a hard blow causes the brain or the nerves to be bruised, the injury is called contusion. A contusion may cause the victim to be unconscious for days. A contusion may also result in a blood clot in the brain. Surgery is needed to remove the blood clot.
Concussion – a sudden blow on the head that does not break the skull can jar the brain. This injury is called concussion. It can also happen after a blow to the jaw, or a heavy fall on the head. The jarring of the head can cause the brain to be shaken around inside the skull. The injured person may be unconscious for a while.
Encephalitis – Encephalitis is caused by the bite of a common mosquito, which carries a virus. This virus destroys the gray matter in the brain. These diseases also called sleeping sickness because it causes a person to fall into a coma. A coma is a prolonged unconsciousness. Getting rid of the breeding places of mosquitoes can help lessen the occurrence of these diseases.
Rabies – Do you know of anybody who was bitten by a mad dog? A mad dog has the virus called rabies. When a dog with rabies bit a person and the virus reaches the nervous system the person will die. The symptom that a person is infected by rabies is fear of water. Rabies is very dangerous because even if treatment is given to the victim, he may not survive.
Meningitis – it is caused by a kind of bacteria or virus that infect the meninges. The meninges are the protective layers of the brain and the spinal cord. The symptoms of these diseases are severe headache, fever and chills followed by back pains and swiftness of the neck. Meningitis is common among children. Antibiotics are effective in fighting the bacteria that cause meningitis.
Epilepsy – is a disorder of the nervous system. An attack of epilepsy is characterized by a violent shaking of the body that lasts from 2 to 5 minutes. The muscles become tense. After shaking the epileptic person feels a headache and becomes sleepy. In some epileptic children, attack of epilepsy may not be characterized by violent shaking. Instead, they are blankly into space for a few seconds. Some attacks are accompanied by unusually behavior such as smacking the lips, chewing or angry outburst. Epilepsy was believed caused by a brain injury at birth, or by a very high fever in a child, or by a brain tumor.
Poliomyelitis – Poliomyelitis or polio was caused by a virus, which attacks the motor nerve cells near the spinal cord. The infection causes the muscles to become paralyzed. To prevent polio, children should be vaccinated.
Cerebral Palsy – Cerebral Palsy is caused by damage in the central nervous system. Sometimes it occurs before or during birth, when the oxygen supply to the baby’s brain is cut-off. People wit cerebral palsy has a spastic muscle. These are muscles that are tensed and contracted. This disease can cause difficulty in walking and speaking. Exercise, special training and braces all help to make a cerebral palsy victim lead a normal life.
Parkinson’s Disease – this disease occurs in older people. It affects the nervous system causing the arms and legs to shake. Walking and speaking become difficult because the muscles stiffs. This disease affects the nervous system.